What are the symptoms of Dementia

what are the symptoms of dementia

It’s crucial to recognize the early signs of dementia as soon as they manifest. By knowing what to look out for, we can better navigate the journey ahead, seeking early treatment or making appropriate arrangements. Let’s delve into this comprehensive guide on the topic-what are the symptoms of dementia.

What are the First Signs of Dementia?

What are the symptoms of Dementia

Dementia, a broad term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life, manifests differently in everyone. However, some common first signs of dementia include forgetfulness, losing track of time, and becoming lost in familiar places. Behavioral changes, such as increased agitation or changes in personality, can also be indicative. Recognizing the first signs of having dementia is the first step to management and treatment.

Distinguishing the Early Signs

What are the symptoms of Dementia

The symptoms of dementia can be subtle at first, sometimes mistaken for ‘normal’ ageing processes. Yet, these early signs of dementia, if not addressed, can progress to a more severe cognitive decline. Notably, early signs of dementia in a woman may be different from those in men due to hormonal differences and other factors.

6 Early Signs of Dementia

  1. Memory loss disrupting daily life
  2. Difficulty in planning or problem-solving
  3. Difficulty completing familiar tasks
  4. Confusion with time or place
  5. Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships
  6. Problems with spoken or written language

Let’s now explore these early signs, the progression, and how to identify the types and stages of dementia.

Symptoms of Dementia by Type

What are the symptoms of Dementia

Different types of dementia present different symptoms. For instance, symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease can start with mild memory loss and confusion, while frontotemporal dementia often begins with personality and behavioural changes.

The first symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia include visual hallucinations, Parkinsonism, and fluctuating cognitive abilities. Similarly, vascular dementia, caused by reduced blood flow to the brain, often presents as memory problems and difficulties with thinking processes.

Dementia in Pets

What are the symptoms of Dementia

Dementia is not confined to humans alone; pets can also suffer from this cognitive disorder. For example, signs of dementia in a dog could include disorientation, changes in sleep patterns, and loss of house training.

The Stages of Dementia

What are the symptoms of Dementia

Understanding the stages of dementia can aid in determining the progress of the disease. Generally, healthcare providers use a 7-stage framework, also known as the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) or the Reisberg Scale.

  1. Stage 1: No cognitive decline
  2. Stage 2: Very mild cognitive decline
  3. Stage 3: Mild cognitive decline
  4. Stage 4: Moderate cognitive decline
  5. Stage 5: Moderately severe cognitive decline
  6. Stage 6: Severe cognitive decline
  7. Stage 7: Very severe cognitive decline

These stages help inform the approach to care, treatment, and patient and family education.

Recognizing the Progression

What are the symptoms of Dementia

As dementia progresses, symptoms become more evident. The symptoms of middle stage dementia can include increased memory loss, confusion, and difficulty recognizing family and friends. As the disease enters the late stages, symptoms may further progress to difficulty walking, significant confusion, and trouble swallowing. Knowing how long stage 7 dementia lasts can assist in preparing for end-of-life care, which can vary from months to years.

Causes of Dementia

What are the symptoms of Dementia

Dementia isn’t a single disease but a collection of symptoms resulting from various diseases or conditions. The most common causes of dementia include Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Let’s explore the common and specific causes of dementia further.

Common Causes of Dementia

While the exact cause of dementia isn’t always clear, it’s usually linked to an array of diseases or injuries that affect the brain. Some common causes of dementia include:

  1. Alzheimer’s disease: This is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for an estimated 60-80% of cases. Plaques and tangles are often found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.
  2. Vascular dementia: Occurs when the brain’s blood supply is blocked or reduced, leading to brain cells’ death.
  3. Lewy body dementia: Characterized by protein deposits in nerve cells that interrupt chemical messages and cause memory loss and disorientation.

Specific Causes of Dementia

Some forms of dementia are associated with specific conditions. For instance, frontotemporal dementia results from progressive nerve cell loss in the brain’s frontal or temporal lobes. Vascular dementia, on the other hand, can result from stroke-induced damage to the brain’s blood vessels.


Interestingly, not all dementia symptoms point to true dementia. Conditions like depression can mimic dementia symptoms in a syndrome called pseudodementia. Here, reversing the underlying cause can alleviate the symptoms.

Detecting Dementia: The Importance of Diagnosis

It’s crucial to understand that dementia-like symptoms can result from vitamin deficiencies, thyroid problems, or drug interactions, which might be reversible. Therefore, dementia needs to be diagnosed by a healthcare professional to distinguish it from other treatable conditions. The diagnosis process may involve cognitive tests, physical examinations, and brain imaging.

Dementia and Age

What are the symptoms of Dementia


Dementia can affect adults of all ages; however, it’s more common in older adults. The question often arises: what age does dementia hit? While this can vary greatly, the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, for example, doubles every five years after age 65.

Warning Signs of Dementia

Spotting the warning signs of dementia can facilitate earlier intervention. If you or a loved one is experiencing memory difficulties or other cognitive changes, don’t ignore them. Consult a healthcare professional to determine the cause.


Understanding the symptoms of dementia is vital to managing this complex condition. Whether you’re a caregiver, family member, or someone experiencing cognitive changes, the more you know, the better equipped you’ll be to navigate the journey ahead. Remember, early detection and appropriate treatment can significantly improve the quality of life for people living with dementia.


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